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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

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AH03I.     NOUNS.                                                             9|
The same word is used in Kbamti and Shan. Examples of its use are, kJian khdm-Md,
servants; Kkm mm, rejoicings; khan po, fathers. Or some noun of multitude, such as
phrinff, a crowd, may be added, as in km phrmg, people. With numerals, no sign of
number is required. Thus, dicing km, two persons.
Case.—The relations of case are indicated by composition with some other word or
by position.
The Nominative is either the bare form of the word, or else, optionallys takes the
suSk ko. This ko possibly gives a definite force to the nonn to which it is attached; at
least, every noun to which it is attached in the specimens has that f oree. It is especially
common with pronouns. It Is possibly connected with the Shan ko, a persoi«s or with the
KMmtl ko, also. Examples of the use of the nominative are,—
(a) Without Jb.
luk-ngl lat-kMmt the younger son said.
po-mdn pan«Mn> the father began to divide.
(6) With ko.
po-man-ko run dk ma, the father came outside the house.
pan-kti luk-ko rai~dai} which son lost, the son who lost.
In KMmt! and Siamese the nominative takes no suffix. Shan may suffix: nat, cfcSm, or chung. In all
these languages, as in Ahom, the nominative usually stands first in the sentence after the introductory particles.
ITo occurs in Shan as a suffix in words like lUng-Jto, anofchBr.
When a noun is the direct object of a sentence, that is to say when it is in the
Accusative case, it takes no suffix or prefix.   Thus,
mdn-ko hung ngin, he sound hear, he heard a sound.
Mng-tdng khup tin-khau, put shoe foot-on, put shoes on (his) feet.
The accusative sometimes takes the suffix mai (vide post).   In the specimens, this is
confined to pronouns.
The above examples show that the accusative sometimes precedes, and sometimes
follows, the word performing the function of a verb.
The accusative takes no suffix in Khamti, Shan, or Siamese; but, in Khamtl, it also freely takes mai. In
Shan it can take the suffix cJiung, when it is wished to give the word a definitive meaning. In Shan, as in
Ahom, it sometimes precedes and sometimes follows the word performing the function of a verb. In Khamti
it usually precedes, and in Siamese it usually follows.
The relationship of the Instrumental case ia< indicated* hy prefixing tmg, with.
Thus, tang kMn> (beat him) with a cudgel; tMtg^M> (bind him) with a rope.
T$ng properly means' with *, ' in company with*. In^lQiamti it appears to have only tihia meaning. In
Shaxi, it appears to have only the meaning of the instrumental. The Khamii prefix of the instrumental is o«.
The relationship of the Dative case is indicated by prefixing the. word ft, meaning
* place', hence {the place or object to which motion is directed'. As explained below* tl
in Shan is also used to indicate the Ablative, as meaning'*tl& place from which motion is
be^tm \ The same word is used to form the future tense of words performing the function
of verbs. Examples of the dative are,—
ft po km, (I will go) to my father.
tl man run> to Ms hoim
n mi Itik-tam Zatlimftt to irae'feoar Kashmir,
SlisnaedasadativeprefixinKhlmti wd IMrlihwsi Shin. la Swmesa it becomes W. In SouiSi«n
Shin ike word naad ia Zffft, but to-f |, pkoe-plaoe, is also empioywl 8©e ablative below.